Great natural moisturizer and skin-identical ingredient that plays an important role in skin hydration and general skin health. Tretinoin, aka retinoic acid, is the active ingredient our skin cells can understand and retinyl palmitate (RP) has to be converted by our metabolic machinery to actually do something. This means moisturizing, skin protecting and soothing magic properties. It lightens hyperpigmentation (aka UVB caused sun spots) both by blocking the melanin production of melanocytes (the skin cells that make the pigment melanin) and by enhancing the desquamation of melanin pigment from the upper layers of the skin. It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer. A thickening and foam-boasting co-surfactant with amphoteric structure meaning that its head contains both a positively and a negatively charged part (surfactants are most commonly anionic meaning their head has a negative charge). LA is not only important for dry, barrier damaged skin types but also for acne-prone skin. It’s safe and gentle, but even more importantly, it’s not a feared-by-everyone-mostly-without-scientific-reason paraben. A water-loving liquid that's clearly soluble in aqueous surfactant solutions, can solubilize oils and oil-soluble ingredients and has a nice skin feel. Number one reason for its popularity has to do with bubbles. One more thing: the water used in cosmetics is purified and deionized (it means that almost all of the mineral ions inside it is removed). Usually the main solvent in cosmetic products. It is known for its good foam-boosing abilities while improving the mildness of the formula. A super common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. At the same time, it also boosts the effectiveness of other preservatives, such as the nowadays super commonly used phenoxyethanol. The evidence that RP is still an effective anti-aging ingredient is not very strong, in fact, it's weak. Comes from two water-binding plant sugars, glucose and xylitol. As we wrote in our lengthy retinol description the problem is that the conversion is not terribly effective. According to manufacturer info, it's loaded with a bunch of good-for-the-skin things: alginates are polysaccharides (a big molecule from repeating sugar units) that are water-loving and can form a protective film on the skin. Though the studies are only in-vitro (made in the lab, not on real people), and it also has a high comedogenicity index, it might be worth a try if you are prone to inflamed acne (the type that's caused by P. acnes bacteria). A super common fragrance ingredient that can be found among others in lavender, ylang-ylang, bergamot or jasmine. As a skincare ingredient, it can be used as an emulsifier or as a cleansing agent. :) You are almost done: please check your mailbox to confirm your email! LA deficiency leads to an impaired more permeable skin barrier and the topical application of LA-rich sunflower oil can fix this issue rapidly (while oleic-rich olive oil did not have the same barrier repairing effect). They can also trap heavy metal ions, and give sensitive skin some protection against polluted urban air. A study made in the UK with 483 people tested the allergic reaction to 3% oxidised linalool and 2.3% had positive test results. Pure Vitamin E. Great antioxidant that gives significant photoprotection against UVB rays. It’s definitely a smart thing to avoid with sensitive skin (and fragrance of any type - natural is just as allergic as synthetic, if not worse!). Can "harmonize the skin's hydrous flow" by optimizing water reserves and limiting water loss. :) It has water-binding properties, which means that it helps to keep your skin nice and hydrated. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde, Read all the geeky details about Glycerin here >>, As we wrote in our lengthy retinol description, summarized the research available about retinyl palmitate here, Read all the geeky details about Tocopherol here >>, Read all the geeky details about Propylene Glycol here >>, eating a healthy ratio of omega-6 to omega-3, Read all the geeky details about Lactic Acid here >>, A natural moisturizer that’s also in our skin, A super common, safe, effective and cheap molecule used for more than 50 years, Not only a simple moisturizer but knows much more: keeps the skin lipids between our skin cells in a healthy (liquid crystal) state, protects against irritation, helps to restore barrier, Effective from as low as 3% with even more benefits at higher concentrations up to 20-40% (around 10% is a good usability-effectiveness sweet spot), High-glycerin moisturizers are awesome for treating severely dry skin, Primary fat-soluble antioxidant in our skin, Significant photoprotection against UVB rays, Vit C + Vit E work in synergy and provide great photoprotection, Easy to formulate, stable and relatively inexpensive, It's a helper ingredient that improves the freeze-thaw stability of products, It's also a solvent, humectant and to some extent a penetration enhancer, It has a bad reputation among natural cosmetics advocates but cosmetic scientists and toxicology experts do not agree (read more in the geeky details section), It’s the second most researched AHA after glycolic acid, It gently lifts off dead skin cells to reveal newer, fresher, smoother skin, It also has amazing skin hydrating properties, In higher concentration (10% and up) it improves skin firmness, thickness and wrinkles, Choose a product where you know the concentration and pH value because these two greatly influence effectiveness, Don’t forget to use your sunscreen (in any case but especially so next to an AHA product). Ingredient Callouts: Free of sulfates SLS and SLES, parabens, formaldehydes, formaldehyde-releasing agents, mineral oil, oxybenzone, coal tar, hydroquinone, triclosan, and triclocarban. Moroccanoil Hydrating Shampoo ingredients explained: Aqua/Water/Eau, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Parfum/Fragrance, Lactamide Mea, Acrylates/Palmeth-25 Acrylate Copolymer, Glycerin, Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil, Retinyl Palmitate, Tocopherol, Chondrus Crispus (Carrageenan) Extract, Ascophyllum Nodosum Extract, Palmaria … An ester form of vitamin A (retinol + palmitic acid) that is pretty much the least effective member of the retinoid family. It’s pretty much the current IT-preservative. A handy multi-tasking ingredient that gives the skin a nice, soft feel and also boosts the effectiveness of other preservatives. The downside of it is that it oxidises on air exposure and might become allergenic. It seems that there is a study showing RP being photo protective against UVB rays but there is also a study showing RP causing DNA damage and cytotoxicity in association with UVA. The hydrogel with 4% Aquaxyl performed as well as the well-known moisturizer, urea and somewhat better than the formula containing NMF components or hydrating plant extract called Imperata Cylindrica. Oh, and one more nice thing: even though it’s synthetic it’s highly biodegradable. If you are not completely satisfied with an online purchase or gift, you may return your U.S.or Canadian purchase in stores or by mail. 11-18% boost in SPF per 1% Styrene/Acrylates Copolymer). … Number one reason for its popularity has to do with bubbles. It's an ester form of vitamin A (retinol + palmitic acid) that belongs to the "retinoid family". A common fragrance ingredient that has a nice floral scent and also goes by the name Lilial. The third major type of actives in the Laminaria Saccharina Extract are phenolic compounds that have antioxidant and soothing properties. Luckily when you put it on your skin it's good for you not like when you eat it. It is useful both for color-protecting products so that they do not change color for a long time as well as for stabilizing unstable sunscreen agents, such as famous UVA filter avobenzone.