But knowledge is always to be preferred to mere belief where it is possible; it is, other things being equal, the ideal form of belief. Nowadays it is easy to fall into error, identifying knowledge in general with knowledge only scientific (or even with what is usually considered scientific) and discarding all other types of knowledge or treating them only to the extent that they can be likened to scientific knowledge. There may be some types of belief, for example religious, for which knowledge is seen to be impossible and belief itself sufficient (in its effects). An analysis of knowledge must reflect this fact. It is the study of meaning, of the principles underlying conduct, thought and knowledge. This article distinguishes each of the above as a basic source of knowledge, with the exception of memory. I’ve been talking about the “learning styles” philosophy and why it doesn’t make sense. Philosophy generally discusses propositional knowledge rather than know-how.. It distinguishes the “four standard basic sources”: perception, memory, consciousness, and reason. What is involved in the study of philosophy involves is described by the London Times in an article dealing with the 20th World Congress of Philosophy: "The great virtue of philosophy is that it teaches not what to think, but how to think. Knowledge How, Ability, and the Type-Token Distinction. It’s because there are different forms of knowledge, each of which has a different source. Any description, hypothesis, concept, theory, or principle which fits this definition would be considered knowledge. A basic source yields knowledge or justified belief without positive dependence on another source. Garry Young - 2017 - Synthese 194 (2):593-607. Knowledge (philosophy) In philosophy, Knowledge is usually defined as beliefs that are justified, true and actionable. Types of cognition . This article identifies the sources from which one acquires knowledge or justified belief.